Municipal Drinking Water, Waste Water, Water Reuse and Aquifer Recharge

Piper Environmental Group, Inc. has partnered with Primozone Production AB in Löddeköpinge, Sweden for our municipal, groundwater, and wastewater applications. Our successful installations since 2015 have made our choice an obvious one. Primozone’s applications are in 30 countries worldwide, with documented OPEX (Operating Expense) savings that are key for companies and utilities who truly believe in a low carbon footprint, sustainability, and reducing their operating costs in maintenance, electricity and oxygen consumption.

Primozone ozone generators are NEW TECHNOLOGY. Cold plasma ozone generation with ozone cells made of stainless steel and aluminum mean no maintenance and definitely no glass dielectric cleaning, breakage, fuses, and spacer removal and replacement. Our favorite features are:

  • Variable high concentration, (although we commonly run at 17% concentration by weight) and the modular design. Utilizing the high concentration not only improves results, it also reduces the oxygen consumption. Therefore when using LOX, cost savings can be significant or if using air compressors and oxygen generators, they are downsized. Both options greatly reduce the OPEX (operating expenses).
  • Modular design ensures that only generators that are required are utilized, saving both electricity and oxygen. In the past, oxygen continued to run at specific design flowrates, regardless of the percent output. Primozone allows generators to cycle on as needed in the process.
  • Variable output is controlled differently with Primozone ozone generators. If operating at 50% output, not only does the electrical consumption decrease linearly, but the oxygen feed gas also decreases linearly so there is a direct correlation.

As our surface water supply becomes increasingly polluted and difficult to treat, the use of groundwater will continue to increase. Unfortunately, even aquifers are polluted. <<<Link to our remediation page>>> Every day, 80 billion gallons of water is withdrawn from aquifers for a variety of uses, including human consumption. Ninety (90) percent of the fresh water supply is underground, yet only 20 percent of the water used is from groundwater, with the majority from surface water.

Small community water treatment operators, limited in resources and finances necessary to meet the EPA’s stringent and ever changing Surface Water Treatment Rule, are leading the way towards increased use of ground water.

Groundwater is renewable and reliable when used appropriately. Deep-drilled wells can recharge themselves, providing a steady supply of water that will not fluctuate with atmospheric changes. As ground water moves downward to aquifers, it dissolves minerals it contacts. Those dissolved minerals give groundwater its chemical character and quality.

Some undesirable qualities such as dissolved organics, tannins, iron, manganese, or sulfides, can cause aesthetic problems such as staining, color, or odor. Other compounds like arsenic, cyanide, or nitrites can have serious health implications and may require additional available methodologies to assist removal with ozone.

In small community water treatment systems, ozone is increasingly being used as a chemical oxidant in the early stages of water treatment to oxidize organic and inorganic contaminants. Ozone works faster than any other oxidant currently used in water treatment and results in the formation of fewer undesirable byproducts.

Many organics will be completely oxidized, while in-organics readily precipitate for simple filtration. The oxidation of organic compounds can lead to many benefits including color removal, taste, odor, and algae control. If membrane filtration is used as the primary treatment option, partial oxidation of organics can result in micro flocculation aiding filtration of compounds that can lead to THM formation.

Pre-treatment with ozone will enhance feed water quality to your filtration membranes, allowing for longer filter life and superior product water. Even with increased awareness of ozone as a viable groundwater treatment alternative, few manufacturers are capable of offering expert sizing assistance, engineering, and technical support necessary to design and size the proper ozone system to fit your needs.

Many plant operators have been unable to keep up with the myriad of changes brought about by industry growth. Piper Environmental Group, Inc., has utilized ozone since 1993 with demonstrated success in providing service and application expertise to a wide range of industries

Ozone Advantages

  • Micro Pollutants
  • Moves easily through soil
  • 12 times more soluble than oxygen in water
  • Rapid oxidation
  • Decomposition leads to oxygenation and biostimulation (for aerobically degradable compounds)
  • Ozone is produced on site from just air and electricity, eliminating the need for hazardous chemical transportation and storage

Effective Treatment for:

  • Micro Pollutants
  • Saturated Hydrocarbons:
    • Chlorinated alkenes
    • Tetrachloroethelyene (PCE)
    • Trichloroethylene (TCE)
    • Cis-1,2 Dichloroethylene (cis-DCE)
    • Vinyl chloride (VC)
    • Chlorinated alkanes
    • Mineral oil
    • Trichloroethane
    • Dichloroethane
    • Tetrachloroethane
    • Ethers and alcohols: MTBE, ETBE, TAME, TBA
    • Unsaturated hydrocarbons
    • Cyanide
  • Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons:
    • BTEX
    • (chloro)phenols (PCP)
    • Chlorobenzenes
    • TNT, RDX and derivatives, nitro-amines
    • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)
    • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides (DDT, DDE, DDD)
    • Insecticides
  • Gasoline and Diesel Fuel (TPHg TPHd)
  • VOCs
    Retrofit Municipal Drinking Water Plants

In the coming decade, many old technology ozone generators in the United States will require replacement. Piper intends to be at the forefront of this replacement. Newer technology Primozone ozone generators will greatly reduce operating expenses at these plants and will bring them into the twenty-first century.

  • Pharmaceutical WasterExcellent support and sharing of intellectual information
  • Equipment far surpasses alternate traditional manufacturers and is frankly a couple of generations ahead of the other companies, with low operating expenses. There are no glass dielectrics, fuses, and spacers.
  • We have designed integrated ozone systems up to 2200 PPD and Primozone have systems in 20 or 30 countries already, including some in the United States.
The capital cost (CAPEX) may be higher with Primozone, but the operating expenses (OPEX) are extremely low. While we are more expensive, it is only with the Capital Expenditure. It is likely you would recap any “overage” by the end of year 2 (and every year thereafter). There are significant savings in electrical consumption AND oxygen consumption. Whether Liquid Oxygen (LOX) where savings is clearly calculated or reduction of smaller compressor, smaller oxygen generator, and if a Mazzei side stream injection is utilized, smaller pumps and Mazzei injections are evident. Additionally, I like to operate their ozone systems at 13.7 – 17% concentration by weight, so we have flexibility in output as well. Please note that the higher the concentration, the lower the oxygen consumption. Although there are many more benefits, I will only add here that we build modularly so you may have 8 (or so) ozone generators. ONLY the ones that are needed are in operation, so the oxygen and electrical savings are also found there. Other large traditional generator manufacturers, which you may be familiar with, maintains the same oxygen feed rate, but varies the electricity, so whether you are at 20% or 100% output, you are using the same oxygen feedrate. As always, Piper remains a privately held, 100% certified woman-owned by California PUC, and we are ISN-Certified.    
Soil and Groundwater Remediation

As the search for the ideal soil and groundwater treatment technology continues, more companies are discovering the benefits of ozone. Since the early 1990′s, ozone has been used on thousands of successful in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) projects. Wastewater, water reuse, and ex-situ ozone applications are very similar and often involve either high concentration ozone (> 15% concentration by weight) and/or Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) using Ultraviolet light or Hydrogen Peroxide.

Piper innovates groundwater treatment methodologies. Not only using high concentration ozone, which greatly reduces the carbon footprint by reducing oxygen and energy consumption, but by increasing the reaction time with Contaminants of Concern (COC). Piper has just patented the Milter High Pressure Ozone Boost system, which was prototyped in Denmark, and adjustments to the design allow for injection gas pressures up to 500 psi (34.4 bar). Abstract of Patent: A method for treating contaminant within contaminated soil and groundwater, especially deep aquifers or tightly packed sediment, through in situ oxidative remediation of the contaminant by sparging, wherein the method includes multiple injection wells, injecting an oxidizing multi gas comprised of high concentration ozone gas (10-20% ozone by wt., 75-85% oxygen) at pressures up to 500 psi (34.5 bar) to reach well depths in excess of 1100 feet (335 meters) and when necessary compressed ambient air at pressures up to 500 psi (34.5 bar). This technology does not involve compressing the ozone gas as has been utilized before. It is all new! Licenses for this European and United States patent are available.  

Piper does NOT recommend the injection of Hydrogen Peroxide in in-situ ozone reactions. Recognizing this is not the current trend, we offer the following theory for you to consider. Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide, when injection is controlled with proper pressures, gas flows, and liquid injection is extremely effective. However, when hydrogen peroxide is injected before or during ozone injection, there is no control of proper pressure and ozone injection. It may appear to be, but controlled water flows at controlled pressure and absolute correct injection of ozone and hydrogen peroxide at proper ratios.

Low cost and high speed of reaction with contaminants are the two main advantages leading many to pursue ISCO. Ozone can be used as a primary treatment or final polishing method, and is effective for remediation of groundwater, saturated soil and vadose zone contaminants.

Ozone is delivered via horizontal or vertical wells and oxidizes organic contaminants in two ways: direct oxidation, or generation of free radical intermediates. Ozone itself oxidizes compounds such as aromatics and chlorinated alkenes. Hydroxyl radicals attack organic contaminants and break down their carbon-carbon bonds.

Small community water treatment operators, limited in resources and finances necessary to meet the EPA’s stringent and ever changing Surface Water Treatment Rule, are leading the way towards increased use of ground water.

For maximized effectiveness, ozone requires closely spaced delivery (injection) points. A general rule of thumb for well spacing is approximately a radius of influence 20’ in diameter.

As awareness of ozonation as a viable treatment alternative for soil and groundwater remediation increases, few suppliers and manufacturers are capable of providing expert design assistance and technical support necessary for a safe and effective ozone treatment project. As an ozone system integrator, Piper Environmental Group will evaluate your project needs to determine the best ozone system for your specific application.

Agriculture, Food and Wine

Since the early 1990s wineries have been experimenting with ozone as an alternative to sanitizers like chlorines and sulfur dioxide. This has provided added benefit of reducing water usage, power consumption, and chemical treatment.

Environmentally sound, ozonated cold water can replace traditional hot water and harsh chemical sanitation practices. Recently, Piper Environmental Group, Inc. has found increasing acceptance of ozone for the barrel and tank washing process as a sanitizer.

Even as awareness of ozone as a viable treatment alternative for wine industry increases, very few manufacturers are capable of providing expert sizing assistance, engineering, or technical support necessary to design and size a proper ozone system to fit your needs.

Piper Environmental Group, Inc. has utilized ozone for food applications since 1993 and demonstrated success with both our service and application expertise. As an ozone system integrator, we evaluate your needs to design the proper ozone system for your specific wine application.

Advantage: Invest in Piper ozone technology for your application and save money by
  • Reducing maintenance time to complete tasks
  • Conserving water by shortening and timing automatic cycles
  • Saving power by reducing hot water consumption
  • Micro Pollutants
  • 1,4 Dioxane
  • Barrel washers
  • Bottle rinsers
  • Bottled Water
  • Clean in Place (CIP)
  • Pretreatment of process water
  • Process cooling towers and chillers
  • Water recycling and reclamation
  • Tank sanitation
Food Industry
  • In response to the growing need for a safer, more effective sanitizer, the FDA acknowledged the GRAS (Generally Regarded as Safe) status of ozone in 1997. Ozone became an unrestricted food additive July of 2002. Piper Environmental Group, Inc.’s food processing applications were reviewed during this period.
  • By 1991, the EPA had confirmed ozone as the most effective primary disinfectant available for drinking water. Many municipal and bottled water plants have been injecting ozone based on the EPA’s findings. Now, an increasing number of food products are being sanitized with ozone.
  • Utilizing ozone technology provides many advantages over traditional treatment for food processing. Ozone is a 152% stronger oxidizing agent than chlorine. In addition, ozone kills all known bacteria, viruses, mold, spores, yeast, mildew and fungus faster than hot water or conventional chemicals. Environmentally sound, ozonated cold water replaces traditional hot water and harsh chemical sanitation such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide and quaternary ammonium or peroxide/acetic acid compounds.
  • Even with the awareness of ozone as disinfection treatment for food, very few manufacturers are capable of offering expert sizing assistance, design, engineering, manufacturing of integrated ozone systems and technical support necessary to provide the correct ozone system to fit your needs. Many plant operators have been unable to keep up with the myriad of changes brought about by industry growth.
  • Wine and Beverage
  • Bottled Water
  • Food Industry

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